Problems of Indonesia National Security

By David Raja Marpaung

FGD Presentation at Ministry of Defense 2011

A. Border Problems

Development of border regions is essentially an integral part of national development. The border region has a strategic value in supporting the success of national development, it is shown by the characteristics of activity include:
a. Any impact to state sovereignty.
b. A driving factor for the improvement of social welfare economics surrounding community.
c. Having a relationship of mutual influence with the activities carried out in other areas bordering the regions and between countries.
d. Have an impact on defense and security conditions, both regional and national scale. Resilience border areas need attention very seriously because these conditions will support the national defense within the framework of Homeland.

Border current conditions are:

1. Economic Aspects.

Border region is a region lagging (backward) due to, among other things:
1) The location is relatively isolated (isolated) with a low level of accessibility.
2) Low levels of education and public health.
3) The low level of socio-economic welfare frontier society (the number of poor and underdeveloped villages).
4) Scarcity of information about government and community development in the border area (blank spots).

Socioeconomic disparities border areas with neighboring communities affect the character and lifestyle of local communities and have a negative impact border security and a sense of nationalism. So it is not infrequently the border as an entry or transit point for criminals and terrorists.

2. Social and Cultural Aspects.

Due to globalization and the development of science and technology are so rapid, information and communication technologies especially the Internet, can accelerate the entry and growth of foreign cultures into the life of Indonesian society. Influence of foreign culture is a lot that does not fit with our culture, and could damage national security, as it accelerates dekulturisasi contrary to the values ​​contained in Pancasila. Frontier communities tend to be more quickly influenced by foreign cultures, due to greater intensity of relationships and their economy is very dependent with neighboring countries.

3. Aspects of Defence and Security.

Border region is a vast area of ​​coaching with the pattern of uneven distribution of the population, thus causing a range of government control, supervision and guidance of territorial difficult to implement with a steady and efficient. All forms of activity or activity that is in the border area if not managed properly will have an impact on the state defense and security, regional and international levels, both directly and indirectly. Border areas prone to hiding the GPK, smuggling and other crimes including terrorism, so the need for an integrated cooperation between relevant agencies in their handling.

Efforts to Build Border can be done in the following ways:

1. Enabling System Sishanta

Defense Act No. 3 of 2002, mandates the defense system of the universe. The consequences of the Defense Security System of the Universe make all the components involved and integrated in the system, which all subsystems must function to support the system. Malfunction of one of the subsystems will interrupt the operation of the system. In this case Sishanta which operate based on awareness of rights and obligations of citizens. Urgency setup is so that the system can function at any time ..

2. Developing Detterence

With the deterrent power, Indonesia can provide a psychological effect on the countries that plan to the threat. One step to achieve such deterrence is conducting modernization or construction of Indonesian military forces. Updates alutsista really done, not just maintenance of existing weapons, but we need to buy weapons and other combat equipment, modern technology has also advanced with the aim of protecting the entire area and homeland of Indonesia.

3. New Regional Development in the Border Region

This view of the border as a remote area we have to change. From now on we must look at the border as a strategic region. Strategically to defend our territory. From an external perspective, or districs territory in the border area is a “storefront” Homeland. That is, progress and welfare of the people in these areas will be “selling” a positive for Indonesia’s international diplomacy. In contrast, the economic backwardness or inaction in these areas it will be soft food for foreign parties concerned to weaken the credibility of the Republic of Indonesia in the international world. Therefore, the central and local government areas that have land borders with neighboring countries such as West Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, East Nusa Tenggara and Papua have to prioritize development along the border.

4. Cooperative Security (Security Cooperation)

To prevent conflicts, often the solution to be taken are the cooperation with the opposition. This is related to an existing problem actually comes from misunderstandings, differences of information, different views and interpretations, and different systems adopted. Security cooperation with the bias to be a step between the Governments of Indonesia and Malaysia, especially in solving border problems.

B. Education

If ateacher is not prosperous and poor educational facilities, then the next generation will face the challenge of lost generation. This is especially true at the level of rural areas or who have a limited budget, and the level of corruption is quite high due to lack of control and monitoring functions. Thankful the government has budgeted 20 percent of state budget funds for education sector.But with the various problems with the welfare of teachers and the inequality of education, there are problems in budget allocation and distribution of the budget to the regions?

All of the success of education reform agenda, is ultimately determined by the elements that are in the forefront, namely teachers. Without teachers who can serve as its flagship, something impossible curricular events following the educational system can achieve the results as expected. Then the main prerequisites that must be met for the continuity of teaching and learning process that ensures the optimization of the ‘learning’ is curricular is the availability of teachers with qualifications and competence are able to meet the demands of his job. But the reality on the ground conditions are still many teachers still lack the level of welfare. According to the research results, ideally average earnings of teachers in Indonesia is Rp 3 million per person. But what happens now is Rp 1.5 million for civil servant teachers, Rp 450 thousand for teacher aides, and Rp 10 thousand per hour for teachers. This amount is still very far from the benchmark welfare of teachers. Therefore, injustice is accepted by the teachers should get serious attention of government. About the injustice experienced by teachers in the area, it is associated with two things: First, the issue of regional autonomy. With the enactment of regional autonomy the Education Department in each county / city has the autonomy to determine programs they make, as well as with the budget set. Irregularities in the operational problems should be dealt with directly by the Regional Supervisory Agency (BAWASDA). Moreover, this issue has been enlarged and can spotlight masyarakt a lot, very funny if BAWASDA long to intervene. Second, it showed that less stringent controls in the expenditure budget in the region. Although the CPC is already in the area, but it would be better KPK also created in each district / city, making it easier for reporting allegations of misappropriation of funds or corruption.

Related to certification, the policy is actually very good for setting standards of quality faculty nationally. However, access must be simplified to facilitate teachers getting certified. Problem of “extortion” certification has been heard since two years ago, but until now no real action that gives a deterrent effect. There should be a dismissal and imprisonment for persons who do it, and covered by the mass media.

The government must also carry out supervision of Ministry of Education officials in agencies, and always monitor the amount of their wealth. This can make them afraid to do anything. And when they were reports from the public, should be followed up immediately.

Budget 20 percent of the national budget for education sector should be able to bring prosperity for educators, and provide good facilities for students. With this condition, it can be concluded that the first, the distribution is uneven and disproportionate budget for each district / city, and second, there circumcision budget at the level of district / city for the education sector. These funds may be diverted to other sectors such as infrastructure, etc.. Third, the existence of corrupt elements in the related department. Fourth, the cost in the region is high as it was in Part of territory in eastern Indonesia.

C. Horizontal Conflict Related Religion Issues

Escalation sealing, closure, assault, and the suppression of places of worship in Indonesia was in essence a representation of the tribal-religious attitude.
Although there are efforts to improve conditions for freedom of religion and belief, the practice of intolerance, discrimination, and violence continued to occur in Indonesia between 2007 and 2011. State officials and political parties have not been able to guarantee freedom of religion / belief and did not understand the fundamental principles of human rights into the constitutional rights of citizens.

In 2010, recorded 286 violations of freedom in 20 provinces.This is worrying because most of the provinces in Indonesia have problems of intolerance. Of the 286 forms of action, there is state action involving 103 \ organizer of the state as an actor. Of that number, 24 is the act of omission (by omission) and 79 are active measures, including the provocative statements of public officials and invited theviolence (condoning).Intolerance is a real crisis in sight, but unfortunately the government seemed to let or slow to handle this. In fact, freedom and protection for worship has been mandated by the 1945 Constitution. Pluralism also who can make the Indonesia can advance up to this SAA. In this case the government must be firm. If the establishment of a house of worship had obtained permission, then the local security forces must protect its inception to finish, and its use by the religious community.Do not let happen to tyranny by the majority of religious adherents are much less. This could bring the nation’s divisions and resentments in the future. This had happened in Ambon, where the conflict due to a politicized religion can take place until nearly a decade. Problems houses of worship can easily ignite conflict, especially with the fairly large number of fundamental and radical in Indonesia.To overcome intolerance, and understanding amongst build tollerance indeed properly inculcated from an early age through education. Moreover, the level of transition from school to family to society. The availability of religious education curriculum that emphasizes noble values ​​in religious as interacting software makes students better prepared to face life a plural. Schools have a dual role: not only educate students through knowledge transfer activities (transfer of knowledge), but also obliged to transfer value (transfer value) as a guide and associating themselves in society. On the other hand, the government needs to redesign the curriculum of religious education based on a more multicultural touches on concrete issues, such as the exclusivism, intolerance, apathy, and racial discrimination, so that the phenomenon of suppression of the name of religion can be eliminated.Furthermore, governments need to be proactive, especially in the area to discuss and address issues that arise related to harmonious life between religion.then, Indonesian government must act more decisively against groups that teach Islamic radicalism and often commit acts of violence in the name of religion. If necessary, the government prohibits the existence of groups that are anti against Pancasila and Unity in Diversity.In the aspect of law enforcement, the police must take firm action against perpetrators of the destruction of houses of worship that occurred in various regions in Indonesia. During this time the police seemed to let the destruction of houses of worship.Overall, the State must establish the authority and show empowerment in the face and deal with the actions undertaken intolerant groups. Nullifying the actions undertaken radicalization triggered public and horizontal conflicts. Actions of intolerant groups are the starting point or seed acts more radical. Therefore, the actual state need to take decisive action.

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